Barnabe Mukendji

Prof. Russ Payne

Philosophy 375

Annotated Bibliography

McAllister, Marc Chase. “GPS and Cell Phone Tracking of Employees.” Fla. L. Rev. 70 (2018): 1265.

This article explores the legality of both GPS tracking for employees as well as cell phone tracking when using this technology to investigate a potential employee theft or fraud case involving a smart phone with pass code protection enabled. Generally, courts have held these “locational privacy” cases to be consensual surveillance. However, critics in the field have argued for a more comprehensive definition of consent that would include technological limits and controls. Ultimately, the question may boil down to whether the use of smart phone tracking would be a search under the Fourth Amendment. This article is important given the rapid development in technology, courts clearly need to establish workable guidelines that can be applied in similar contexts and not just rely on old notions of privacy like Separation and Standing Rules. Thus, whether the tracking is obtained from cell phone records or through GPS tracking, employers should tread carefully in adopting policies which track employees’ locations through the use of technology or other means.

Park, Yoo Min. “A GPS-enabled portable air pollution sensor and web-mapping technologies for field-based learning in health geography.” Journal of Geography in Higher Education 46, no. 2 (2022): 241-261.

This article provides a discourse on the benefits of using personal portable devices to collect air pollution data. The author argues that the use of GPS is preferable to traditional methods of locating pollution sources because it can be used by people without a background in geography who have pressing needs to find out if their health is at risk from air pollution. Therefore, Park argues that this technology can allow people to make informed decisions about environmental health. The method of GPS tracking is useful to citizens who live in low-income communities, with limited access to the Internet, because it can provide information about proximity and avoidances. The author argues that this technology can be used for research in health geography because it could have the potential to reduce air pollution by making local governments aware of their mistakes, such as failing to monitor specific pollution sites.

Patel, Shreyans, and Ghansyam Rathod. “IoT Based 3-Dimensional GPS Tracking System.” In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 2007, no. 1, p. 012024. IOP Publishing, 2021.

The article focuses on the implementation of IoT based 3-dimensional GPS tracking system to track public transportation in various cities. The main aim of this research was to develop a single system that can be used by the public transportation agencies worldwide and can provide information regarding location, distance traveled, speed, time consumed and other properties. A pre-security system that uses a central server or cloud computing architecture was developed to monitor the movements and physical status of assets such as vehicles of public transport systems like buses. According to the research, it can be extended to monitor any asset under a government organization. In this system, the GPS technology plays a vital role in monitoring and tracking of assets. In formulating the IoT based 3-dimensional GPS tracking system, various components were considered such as transforming 3D geospatial coordinates into 2D geo-referenced ones and then generating a map from it.

Sadeghian, Paria, Johan Håkansson, and Xiaoyun Zhao. “Review and evaluation of methods in transport mode detection based on GPS tracking data.” Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition) 8, no. 4 (2021): 467-482.

In this article, the authors evaluate different transport modes based on GPS tracking data – specifically the methods of detecting cycle, walk and car trips. The research questions are how to improve detection accuracy and what are metrics for evaluation. Different approaches such as temporal variance was investigated in two ways: one that utilizes individual’s mobility pattern (temporal variance) and another that utilizes average mobility pattern of a group of individuals (group temporal variance). The results show that the more an individual deviates from the group average mobility pattern, the less likely they are to be traveling by car.

In order to detect modes of transportation in real-world applications, one has to consider different factors such as GPS accuracy, mode detection techniques and evaluation metrics. In this study, different factors were taken into account and eight methods were evaluated based on the evaluator’s accuracy. In order to evaluate different techniques, data was collected from four individuals within a period of one year.

Smith, Stephen Wm. “The Cell Phone Donut Hole in the Tracking Device Statute.” Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 14 (2021): 1.

One of the most talked about topics in law is the legality of tracking devices. Smith takes a look at this issue and provides insight into what can be done to overcome it. This article centers on how the cell phone “donut hole” (where devices are not tracked to anywhere) can be eliminated. This article also explains the laws and regulations that support the issue. According to this article, the cell phone donut hole is a term coined by United States Attorney General Eric Holder. The Attorney General refers to the area that devices do not have to be tracked as a “donut hole” and states the reason behind this is because of the fact that most criminals’ activity is leading up to their breaking into homes or committing other crimes. Therefore, the Attorney General wants law enforcement agencies to use cell phone tracking technology so that they can protect themselves.

Vlisides-Henry, R. D., Gao, M., Thomas, L., Kaliush, P. R., Conradt, E., & Crowell, S. E. (202

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