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User Perceptions of Internet of Things (IoT) Systems

Conference Paper  in  Communications in Computer and Information Science · October 2017

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-67876-4_1

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Anastasios A. Economides

University of Macedonia

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User Perceptions of Internet of Things (IoT) Systems

Anastasios A. Economides(&)

University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece economid@uom.gr

http://conta.uom.gr

Abstract. This chapter proposes a user perceptions model regarding an IoT system that is based on the user’s beliefs about important factors of this IoT system. Initially, the chapter classifies the IoT applications and services in twelve (12) sectors across the personal, business and public domains. It also outlines the technological, societal, business and human challenges. Then, it defines the IoT User Perceptions Model (IoT-UPM) which is composed from thirty-three (33) fundamental factors. Also, it formally defines these thirty-three (33) factors in order to establish a universally accepted model regarding user perceptions of a particular IoT system.

Keywords: Easy-of-use � Effectiveness � Efficiency � Internet of Things � Interoperability � IoT � IoT-UPM � Personalization � Satisfaction � Security � Technology Acceptance Model � Ubiquity � Usefulness � User control � User experience � User perceptions � Value-for-money

1 Introduction

IoT is the worldwide digital infrastructure that supports ubiquitous services among interacting humans, things, data and applications. A thing carries sensors which sense, measure and collect data. It may process and analyze these data either locally or transmit them to other systems. Subsequently, these systems make recommendations to people or order actuators to act appropriately. Thus, a thing may carry one or more sensors and/or actuators and be able to communicate with other things. It is forecasted that there will exist around 30 billion connected devices by 2021 [21, 23, 24]. Cor- respondingly, the IoT economic impact is expected to be around $1 trillion by 2022 [36]. Major IoT applications sectors include smart cities, smart transportation and logistics, smart industry, and smart home. It is expected that the market in emerging sectors will exceed $100 billion per sector by 2021 [2, 25, 36, 45, 46].

IoT has the potential to transform not only businesses but also society and everyday life [3, 5, 19, 47, 48, 53]. It will bring together people, things, data, applications and services. It will empower people to achieve their objectives (regarding health, educa- tion, enjoyment, family, work etc.), companies to accomplish their purpose and gov- ernments to serve their citizen. It will change the ways people, businesses, and governments interact among themselves. All the following interaction types would co-exist in IoT: Person-to-Person (P2P), Person-to-System (P2S), Person-to-Business

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017 M.S. Obaidat (Ed): ICETE 2016, CCIS 764, pp. 3–20, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67876-4_1

 

 

(P2B), Person-to-Government (P2G), Person-to-Environment (P2E), Business-to- Person (B2P), Business-to-System (B2S), Business-to-Business (B2B), Business-to- Government (B2G), Business-to-Environment (B2E), Government-to-Person (G2P), Government-to-System (G2S), Government-to-Business (G2B), Government-to- Government (G2G), Government-to-Environment (G2E). Each actor (Person, Busi- ness, or Government) could be a single or a group of actors.

The proliferation of connected things, connected people, connected devices, con- nected networks, connected data and connected processes would create revolutionary opportunities in economy, society, business, and personal life. For example, an IoT system might continuously monitor elderly health and instantaneously alert emergency services in case of abnormal conditions. A carry-on IoT system might interact with Facebook and inform the user when someone of his friend is close to him. Food would be continuously monitored to guarantee that its ingredients, cooking, storage, and transportation adhere to hygiene standards. City officials would control traffic, parking, lighting, park irrigation and waste management. Government would monitor and maintain bridges, tunnels and other infrastructure conditions.

Currently, there are available sensors to collect temperature, location, motion, velocity, acceleration, force, pressure, flow, humidity, light, acoustic, magnetic, seis- mic, imaging, luminosity, chemical, radiation and body measurements. These mea- surements would be used by connected applications and services to better serve people, society and businesses.

Various organizations and international projects are actively developing the IoT ecosystem. Major players include European Smart Anything Everywhere (SAE) Ini- tiative, Alliance for the Internet of Things Innovation (AIOTI), Internet of Things (IoT) Global Standards Initiative (GSI), W3C – Web of Things Community, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SWG 5 IoT; INCITS 5G on IoT, One M2M, AllSeen Alliance, Open Inter- connect Consortium, Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC), Eclipse IoT, among others. Also, major companies (Intel, Qualcomm, IBM, MS, Cisco, Samsung, Amazon, Google, Apple, HP, SAP, Huawei, etc.) are intensively participating in this evolution.

However, while much attention has been given to the technology needed to develop IoT; little attention has been given to the end user. Even if the technology and the applications are available, it is not guaranteed that the users will accept and use them. In this chapter, we propose a model that considers the major factors that affect the IoT acceptance by users. These concepts have been presented initially in two keynote speeches given by the author [16, 17].

In the next Sect. 2, we outline the IoT services and applications across the various sectors. Then in Sect. 3, we describe the challenges. In Sect. 4 we describe the pro- posed model and that factors that compose it. Finally, we conclude in Sect. 5 and suggest directions for future research.

2 IoT Services and Applications

The increasing connectivity among people, things and data enable great opportunities for developing applications in almost any sector of society, economy or personal life (e.g. [38]). After classifying the various sectors in three main domains (i.e. personal

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domain, business domain, and public domain), we outline various services and applications in every sector (Diagram 1). Personal Domain In this domain, we consider IoT applications sectors that would improve the quality of personal life using IoT. The Personal domain includes the following sectors: Smart Healthcare and Wellbeing, Smart Education, and Smart Home.

Smart Healthcare and Wellbeing A user would wear smart clothes and carry wearable devices (e.g. smart clothes, glass, watch, telephone) while he is exercising, eating, working, studying, having fun, sleeping. An IoT system would monitor a person’s health (physical, mental, emotional), analyze health state (e.g. diagnostics), notify appropriate agencies (e.g. doctors, family, emergency units), make recommendations (e.g. a special diet) or even take appropriate actions (e.g. in case of user’s inability). For example, it would encourage exercising or alert him when it is time to take his medicine. Special assistance would be given to infant, elderly, patient, or persons with special needs (e.g. [1, 11, 26]). Also, doctors would study the effect of a therapy or medication. Hospitals would use IoT systems to monitor connected devices, instruments, equipment, pharmaceuticals, drugs, etc.

Smart Education An IoT system continuously monitors the learner and encourages him (e.g. [15, 37]), recommends to him educational material to study or next appropriate question during exams according to his progress and his emotional state (e.g. [12, 14, 42]).

Correspondingly, it may notify the teacher, the school administration and other interested parties about the learner’s progress. For example, an adviser gets an alert when a student is at risk of dropping out. Also, group of students and teachers may interact and collaborate among themselves using IoT systems to monitor the envi- ronment (i.e. plants, water, and air) and accomplish an educational activity.

Smart Home An IoT system would continuously monitor home’s safety (e.g. smoke, gas, motion detection), environment (e.g. heat, air, light), appliances, equipment, consumption (e.g. electricity, gas, water), security and surveillance, make recommendations, adjust sys- tems to prescribed state (e.g. adjust temperature) or take appropriate actions (e.g. extinguish fire) (e.g. [20, 49]). A user would monitor infant, elderly and patients. Also, a user would control and manage home appliances, entertainment devices, and even- tually the whole home. Business Domain In this domain, we consider IoT applications sectors that enable business to accomplish their purpose and benefit from IoT. The Business domain includes the following sectors: Smart Building, Smart Industry, Smart Services, Smart Retailing and Logistics, and Smart Transportation and Smart Vehicle, Smart Agriculture and Livestock (Animal Farming).

Smart Building IoT systems would monitor and control the building’s (e.g. offices, hotel, museum) access, lighting, heating/air-conditioning, equipment and resources’ usage etc. (e.g. [40]). IoT systems would be used for smart metering to control energy consumption in

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order to reduce cost. Also, IoT systems would be used for security and surveillance, alarm in case of emergency (e.g. fire, intruders) or take appropriate actions (e.g. improve air quality, close lights if no one is around).

Smart Industry Connected machines and robots would be used in smart factory, manufacturing, mining, construction to improve production (e.g. customized, on-time, on-demand production) (e.g. [31, 34, 43]).

Smart Services IoT systems would be used in the financial, banking, insurance (health, building, car, etc.) services to monitor people, data and resources in order to improve their offered services (e.g. [10]). For example in tourism, IoT systems would track visitors and recommend destinations, sites, tours, hotels, driving routes, hiking paths, and other activities based on the tourists’ characteristics.

Smart Retailing and Logistics IoT systems would be used to track products, monitor cargo and warehouses in order to optimize inventory and stock levels, reduce theft, and maintain product quality (e.g. [4]). An IoT system would monitor the state of products in storage and during trans- port, make recommendation and alert when the products are not stored according to requirements, when the product’s expiration date approaches or when unauthorized access happens.

Smart Transportation and Smart Vehicle IoT systems would be used to monitor passengers (e.g. mobile tickets), luggage’s, vehicles (e.g. cars, buses, airplanes, ships), containers, infrastructure conditions (e.g. roads, airports, railways, harbors, bridges, tunnels, tolls) to optimize transportation via land, air, or water, or schedule predictive maintenance. For example, sensors could monitor the traffic and appropriately control the lighting in tunnels [41].

Connected cars and smart vehicles would interact to avoid accidents, enhance infotainment, and reduce traffic congestion, power consumption, pollution, and time waste. Smart fleet management would reduce cost, delivery time, wasted empty space in tracks etc. (e.g. [22, 32]). Finally, transportation of hazardous material (e.g. corro- sives, flammables, toxic, explosives) would be improved.

Smart Agriculture and Livestock IoT systems would monitor a farm, crop, vineyard, green house, livestock, animals, farm equipment and machinery (tractors, fertilizer distribution), make recommenda- tions or take appropriate actions (e.g. irrigation, feeding) to enhance the production quality and quantity (e.g. [33]). Public Domain In this domain, we consider IoT applications sectors that enable the public sector to better serve the citizens using IoT. The Public domain includes the following sectors: Smart City/Community, Smart Utilities, and Smart Environment.

Smart City and Community IoT systems would monitor streets for security reasons and alarm police in case of crime or violence. Similarly, they would monitor the city’s environment and alarm

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IoT applica ons

Personal domain

Smart Healthcare & Wellbeing

Smart Educa on

Smart Home

Business domain

Smart Building

Smart Industry

Smart Services

Smart Retailing & Logis cs

Smart Transporta on &

Smart Vehicle

Smart Agriculture & Livestock

Public domain

Smart City & Community

Smart U li es

Smart Environment

Diagram 1. IoT applications.

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