Abstract Background/Objectives: This survey reports on the current research on the Internet of Things by examining the related literature, identifying current trends, challenges that threaten IoT and future directions. Findings: Most of the people use the Internet every day but little knows how it really works. Now a Days internet of things (IoT) has been area of research as many heterogeneous devices are connected through internet. This will capacitate the devices with new abilities. In such a case, the confidentiality of data plays an important role. It includes data validation and confidentiality, secrecy and reliability amongst various users and the constraints of security and privacy policies. Traditional security methods cannot be directly applied to IoT technologies due to the different standards and communication stacks involved. Moreover, the amount of more interconnected devices will lead to less adaptability; so a more modifiable structure is needed to deal with security threats in a drastically dynamic environment. Application/Improvements: The concept of loT brings a new challenge regarding privacy, security, confidentiality, reliability and trust. The major issues are lot of devices are not protected under mechanisms such as firewalls and are not following the specific standards. They are easily attacked by wireless channels. Such devices can be stolen and can be analysed by attackers to reveal their key material. Combining data from different sources is the other major issue since there is no guarantee of security between data providers and data consumers from very beginning. Secure exchange platform is required between IoT devices and consumers of their information.

Security and Privacy Challenges: Internet of Things Seema Nath1 and Subhranil Som2

1Department of Management and Information Technology, Ideal Institute of Management and Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, Delhi-110078, India; seemanath.iimt@gmail.com,

2Amity Institute of Information Technology, Amity University, Noida-201303 Uttar Pradesh, India; ssom@amity.edu

Keywords: Adaptability, Heterogeneous Devices, Internet of Things, Privacy, Security

1. Introduction IoT is an interface of things wirelessly connected with the help of intelligent and reliable. Objects with this facil- ity will be able to have an interface without any human interference. Some applications in IoT are developing in healthcare, transportation, automotive industries, & elec- tronic meters. The concept of IoT is quite complex and has multiple folds, it includes distinct technologies and services1.

Gubbi describes a brief look upon the various aspects of IoT, for example the technologies included are vari- ous applications, cloud services, architecture, total power utilization and reliability problems, peculiarity of service and data mining implications:

The development of IoT involves several issues such as connected devices, communication network, standards, protocols and interfaces.

The security, confidentiality and integrity needs to be ensured, along with validation and validation mechanisms in order to prevent illegitimate users to access the system5.

The most important and concerned issue is confiden- tiality, users private data has to be ensured, since devices will also be managing sensitive information.

The rest of the report includes the following: In Section 2, Enabling technologies are studied. In section 3, analyzing available approaches regarding confidentiality and authentication, Sections 4 deal with privacy issues. In Section 5, Application of IoT is reviewed. At the end future research directions are discussed.

*Author for correspondence

Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 10(3), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i3/110642, January 2017 ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846

ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645



Security and Privacy Challenges: Internet of Things

Indian Journal of Science and Technology2 Vol 10 (3) | January 2017 | www.indjst.org

2. Enabling Technologies in IoT IoT was referred as uniquely distinguishable exchangeable connected objects with radio-frequency identification (RFID). It is defined as “a dynamic global network infra- structure with self-configuring capabilities based on exchangeable communication protocols; physical and virtual things in IoT have identities and attributes that are capable of using intelligent interactions and being integrated as an information network”. IoT is generally a parent class of combined devices that are exceptionally distinguished through field communication technology.

The words “Internet” And “Things” means a correlated network which is worldwide has sensoring capacities, communication systems, networking, and data processing, that may be a new variant of information and commu- nications technology (ICT). Inspite of many arguments on the definition of IoT, technologies are developing at a fast pace by many institutions, intelligent sensoring along with wireless communication technologies are now a part of Internet of Things and new demands have arisen. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) talked about technologies, potential markets, and emerging chal- lenges and the impacts of Internet of Things. Evolution of IoT is picturized in various stages. The IoT is initiatialised by using RFID technology that is used in pharmaceutical production, logistics and various other areas of applica- tions. The emerging wireless sensor technique has widely advanced the sensory capacities of devices and hence the concept of Internet of Things extends from here toencom- passing smartness and self-governing controls. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), smart sensing, NFC, barcodes, cloud computing and low energy wireless communica- tions are examples of some technologies that have been introduced in IoT till now. Evolution of such technolo- gies leads to new technologies of IoT. IoT delineates the new era of Internet, wherein objects will be accessible and identifiable via Internet. The fundamental concept of IoT implies that the connected objects can be distinguished distinctly in virtual representation. Each and every object can communicate and interchange data, process and modify data according to some predesigned techniques.

2.1 Current Research During the recent years, RFID-based authentication is used widely in pharmaceutics, logistics and retail. Since 2010, along with the new advancements in smart sens- ing techniques, less power wireless communication, and

networking through sensor technology, things can now be networked to internet. For providing services to users through application, technical standards are defined and structured based on the particularization of data process- ing, and data communication in the network itself. Things connected to internet must be able to exchange data with each other simultaneously. When billions of things are integrated smoothly and effectively, IoT can then have various applications. Emergence of such technologies originates new technologies in IoT. IoT delineates the new era of Internet, wherein objects will be accessible and identifiable via Internet. The fundamental concept of IoT implies that the connected objects can be distinguished distinctly in virtual representation. Each and every object can communicate and interchange data, process and modify data according to some predesigned techniques. Each and every object is able to communicate and inter- change data, process and modify data according to some predesigned techniques.

3. Authentication and Confidentiality

The approach for authentication uses a mechanism which is a custom encapsulation mechanism, intelligent Service Security Application Protocol.

A secure communication system is established along with cross platform communication, encryption, authen- tication and signature so as to improve IoT’s application development capacity. The first completely implemented two way validation security technique namely Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol that resides in the transport and application layer.

Concerned with confidentiality/secrecy and integrity, it is noted the already existing main management systems can be useful in the IoT context. Key Management System (KMS) protocols are classified in four main categories – key pool framework, negotiation framework, math- ematical framework and public key framework. Key pool framework suffers from improper connectivity as well as the deployment knowledge to upgrade the structuring of data structures is used by mathematical framework, but this is not possible, combinatorics-based protocols writher from authentication, scalability & connectivity; the wireless channel and its inherent features to negotiate a common key are used by negotiation, but they are also not suitable as the server and client nodes have different networks and has to route the information via Internet2.



Seema Nath and Subhranil Som

Indian Journal of Science and Technology 3Vol 10 (3) | January 2017 | www.indjst.org

The basic requirements for such schemes are multiple countermeasures to manage the authentication of various devices. For instance, there is a framework that is on PKI. A transmission model which has signature encryption technique addresses IoT security requirements which actually mean trustworthy, confidentiality and attack- resistant with the help of some Object Naming Service queries.

In this process of transmission, the data of object is wrapped in various layers of encryption with routing the node’s public key by Remote Information Server of Thin

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