American International Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 5, No. 6; December 2015
University Of Northern Colorado Before starting to evaluate the educational design we want to know what Instructional Design means. Instructional design is known as instructional technology. It means a systematic process that helps in creating and developing effective, appealing, and efficient instructional materials within a supportive environment using art, science, learning, and instructional theory. The components of the instructional design include analysis of learners’ problems and needs, designing of instructional design include activities and materials. Development of objective goals is also done in order to meet the learners’ need, implementation includes training, and finally it includes evaluating the instruction and the learners’ outcomes. Additionally, there are instructional design models that are used by the instructional designer and the developers of training. I am going to choose the model that is called the ADDIE model in order to evaluate all of the components of the design.
ADDIE model is one of the most common models used in the instructional design field a guide to producing an effective design. This model is an approach that helps instructional designers, any content’s developer, or even teachers to create an efficient, effective teaching design by applying the processes of the ADDIE model on any instructional product. In fact, the elements made by following the ADDIE model can be used in any environment as online or face-to-face. In addition, this systematic process is represented in the acronym ADDIE, which stands for the important components in the process of creating the instructional design, which are Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each phase in ADDIE model is related to and interacts with each other.
Analysis stage is the most important phase in this process. When instructional designers do the analysis phase before creating the plan, developing, or even implementing, they really save huge amount of courses, effort, and time. In order to carry out the analysis phase we have to analyze four things, like we have to analyze the learners (where they are at, their skills and needs, etc.), develop an instructional analysis (to provide the necessary steps and present opportunities to learn and use new information in an instruction), create instructional goals (aimed at specifying the end desired result), and analysis’s learning objectives (how to measure the attainment of goals). That means you have to be clear about your goals and where you want your learners to be.
• In analysis of the learner. We need to know what do the leaner’s know already about the topic, so we can build our plan on what they learned and know what information the audience needs and how much. We need to know the needs and problems of the learners. In order to identify that, we can do surveys, interviews, pretests, or pre-assessments of the audiences to collect data about them. For instance, if we choose to teach history class and our topic is Ancient Civilizations, an effective way to start is to bring a big world map and ask the learners to identify and point out any ancient civilizations on the map.
• In analysis of instructional goals. We have to identify obvious goals for the specific instruction. What do you want the learners learn? When you clearly identify your specific goals, you will save much in time and sources. In fact, you will create a very effective instruction design. An example on our topic is that we want our learners to identify Ancient Egypt on the map, provide examples of contributions of their civilization, and describe three enduring artifacts constructed by Ancient Egypt.
• Developing instructional analysis. Is very hard and complicated. When we identify specific goals we will start to write all the important steps and all the details that we need to achieve the goals. In fact, this phase is more visible from the instructional designer because we need to edit back and forth.
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• For example, what do we want our learners to learn about Ancient Egyptian civilization? Where it was located? When did Ancient Egyptian civilization start and when it ended? What were the major dynasties of Pharaohs? And what did they do? What were contributions of ancient Egyptians to the world?
• In developing learning objectives. We have to be more specific. In this phase, we define what our learners should be able to do when the instruction is finished. Additionally, the formalized aspects are skills, behavior and knowledge. Objectives need to specify an observable measureable behavior that indicates attainment of the goal, that specify the level of accuracy that needs to be attained, and that describes the conditions under which the assessment is given (i.e., the materials or context). For example, we can write our learning objectives in this way: by the end of this instruction the audiences/learners (she or he) should be able to mark correct answers at an 80% accuracy level on a multiple choice test. In order to fill this blank you have to be very specific when you choose your verbs such as, explain, describe, demonstrate, etc. For example, by the end of this instruction the audiences/learners (she or he) should be able to identify where the Ancient Egyptian civilization is located with 100% accuracy level when given a world map.
Design phase is the next step in ADDIE model. This phase is really about applying the instruction. In fact, the instructional designer in this step thinks about how design instruction can really be effective in ways that facilitate people’s learning and interaction with the materials you create and provide. Furthermore, in design phase the instructional designer evolves and focuses on designing assessment for (his/her) topic, select a form of the course, and creating their own instructional strategy.
• An assessment’s design. Assessing your learner’s outcomes on your subject is very necessary but before, that it is important to know how you will assess these outcomes when you are working on your instructional design. To do the assessment effectively, you must use the data that you already collected from the former stage, which is Analysis phase. Along with that, make sure that your assessment is strongly related to the content and context. Also, when you write your assessments make sure your tasks or questions are written well, so there is no mistake or misunderstanding that might lead to confusion by the learners. For instance, if your topic is about Ancient Egyptian civilization, do not talk about modern civilizations or ancient civilizations that have nothing to do with Ancient Egypt.
• Select a form of the course. The second part of the form of your course is to choose a delivery system. Form’s course means how you are going to represent your materials about the topic. In fact, there are many formats you can use in order to deliver the content; for instance, lecture in the classroom, online over the Internet, self-based workbook, etc. or in course that integrates many methods. That means you have to select the form of the course that match your design assessment. For example, if the learners are going to take tests by using their own laptop, the effective way then is to select the form of the course that allows the learners to use their own laptop. For example, give the learners a chance to research about the pyramids using their own laptop.
Creating instructional strategy. After you have finished the assessment’s design and created the form for the class, we will start creating the strategies for the instructional design. Truly, the course strategy is a combination of many methods to help the learners understand the topic (for instance, lectures, discussions, reading, and activities, etc.). An example might be a website that has links to guest speakers or experts (such as Zawi Hawass, the foremost Egyptologist currently in Egypt), to other websites or to activities that the learner can engage in to practice the ideas and skills being presented, such as a matching of terms to their definitions.
In addition, when we work on creating the strategies we have to consider motivating our learners, so they can recognize the importance of our topic.
For example, if I want teach the students about using the Photoshop program, a good way to motivate them is to explain that they can use this program to make their own photo in a professional work. We must not forget to clarify the objectives of our course so the learners can see the elements of our strategies. This means we have to use words that describe observable and measurable behaviors and outcomes. Also, you have to make sure that you do not include unnecessary information in your topic to avoid making your learners confused or lost and we must include examples to clarify the information. For instance, I provide an example about each phase and step that I talked about in order to provide additional clarification.
American International Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 5, No. 6; December 2015
Another important point as well, to give the students chances in your instructional strategies to participate in and consider activities, but those things need to be accompanied with feedback. For example, we have an application on the iPad for preschool level that asks them to match the animals’ pictures to each other. The feedback in this case will be a sound of clapping if they found the correct image or if it not they will hear a sound like oh. Each instance of the same animal picture has the same animal sound. From this feedback, the learners can recognize both the sound and the picture of the animals and additionally they will know if they did it right or wrong.
This phase depends on the first two phases, which are the analysis and the design phase. That mean, if we did these phases correctly the developme